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Production Occupations




Bakers, manufacturing:
Mix and bake ingredients according to recipes to produce breads, pastries, and other baked goods. Goods are produced in large quantities for sale through establishments such as grocery stores. Generally, high-volume production equipment is used.

  • 1998 employment: 55,000
  • Projected 1998-2008 employment change: Slower than average
  • Most significant source of training: Moderate-term on-the-job training

Boiler operators and tenders, low pressure:
Operate or tend low-pressure stationary steam boilers and auxiliary steam equipment, such as pumps, compressors and air-conditioning equipment, to supply steam heat for office buildings, apartment houses, or industrial establishments; to maintain steam at specified pressure aboard marine vessels; or to generate and supply compressed air for operation of pneumatic tools, hoists, and air lances.

  • 1998 employment: 16,000
  • Projected 1998-2008 employment change: A decline
  • Most significant source of training: Moderate-term on-the-job training

Cannery workers:
Perform a variety of routine tasks in canning, freezing, preserving, or packing food products. Duties may include sorting, grading, washing, peeling, trimming, or slicing agricultural produce.

  • 1998 employment: 50,000
  • Projected 1998-2008 employment change: A decline
  • Most significant source of training: Short-term on-the-job training

Cement and gluing machine operators and tenders:
Operate or tend cementing and gluing machines to join together items to form a completed product or to form an article for further processing. Processes include: Joining veneer sheets into plywood; gluing paper to glass wool, cardboard or paper; joining rubber and rubberized fabric parts, plastic, simulated leather, and other materials.

  • 1998 employment: 35,000
  • Projected 1998-2008 employment change: A decline
  • Most significant source of training: Moderate-term on-the-job training

Chemical equipment controllers, operators, and tenders:
Controllers and operators: Control or operate equipment to control chemical changes or reactions in the processing of industrial or consumer products. Exclude operators who control equipment centrally controlled through panel boards. Tenders: Tend equipment in which a chemical change or reaction takes place in the processing of industrial or consumer products. Typical equipment used are: Devulcanizers, batch stills, termenting tanks, steam-jacketed kettles, and reactor vessels.

  • 1998 employment: 100,000
  • Projected 1998-2008 employment change: About as fast as average
  • Most significant source of training: Moderate-term on-the-job training

Chemical plant and system operators:
Control and operate an entire chemical process or system of machines, such as reduction pots and heated air towers, through the use of panelboards, control boards, or semiautomatic equipment.

  • 1998 employment: 43,000
  • Projected 1998-2008 employment change: About as fast as average
  • Most significant source of training: Long-term on-the-job training

Coil winders, tapers, and finishers:
Wind wire coils used in electrical components, such as resistors and transformers, and in electrical equipment and instruments, such as field cores, bobbins, armature cores, electrical motors, generators, and control equipment. May involve the use of coil-winding and coil-making machines.

  • 1998 employment: 22,000
  • Projected 1998-2008 employment change: Slower than average
  • Most significant source of training: Short-term on-the-job training

Cooking and roasting machine operators and tenders, food and tobacco:
Cooking machine operators and tenders: Operate or tend cooking equipment, such as steam cooking vats, deep fry cookers, pressure cookers, kettles, and boilers, to prepare food products, such as meats, sugar, cheese, and grain. Exclude food roasting, baking, and drying machine operators and tenders. Roasting, baking, and drying machine operators and tenders: Operate or tend roasting, baking, or drying equipment to: Reduce moisture content of food or tobacco products, such as tobacco, cocoa and coffee beans, macaroni, and grain; roast grain, nuts, or coffee beans; bake bread or other bakery products; or process food preparatory to canning. These machines include hearth ovens, kiln driers, roasters, char kilns, steam ovens, and vacuum drying equipment.

  • 1998 employment: 31,000
  • Projected 1998-2008 employment change: A decline
  • Most significant source of training: Moderate-term on-the-job training

Crushing, grinding, mixing, and blending machine operators and tenders:
Crushing, grinding, and polishing machine operators and tenders: Operate or tend machines to crush or grind any of a wide variety of materials, such as coal, glass, plastic, dried fruit, grain, stone, chemicals, food, or rubber; or operate or tend machines that buff and polish materials or products, such as stone, glass, slate, plastic or metal trim, bowling balls, or eyeglasses. Mixing and blending machine operators and tenders: Operate or tend machines to mix or blend any of a wide variety of materials, such as spices, dough batter, tobacco, fruit juices, chemicals, livestock feed, food products, color pigments, or explosive ingredients.

  • 1998 employment: 150,000
  • Projected 1998-2008 employment change: Slower than average
  • Most significant source of training: Moderate-term on-the-job training

Cutting and slicing machine setters, operators, and tenders:
Operators and tenders: Operate or tend machines to cut or slice any of a wide variety of products or materials, such as tobacco, food, paper, roofing slate, glass, stone, rubber, cork, and insulating material. Exclude metal, wood, and plastic sawing machine operators and tenders, and textile cutting machine operators and tenders. Setters and setup operators: Set up or set up and operate machines that cut or slice materials, such as glass, stone, cork, rubber, crepe, wallboard, and fibrous insulating board, to specified dimensions for further processing. Exclude wood sawyers, metal or plastic sawyers, shear or slitter operators, and textile setters and set-up operators.

  • 1998 employment: 96,000
  • Projected 1998-2008 employment change: Slower than average
  • Most significant source of training: Moderate-term on-the-job training

Dairy processing equipment operators, including setters:
Set up, operate, or tend continuous flow or vat-type equipment to process milk, cream, or other dairy products, following specified methods and formulas.

  • 1998 employment: 15,000
  • Projected 1998-2008 employment change: A decline
  • Most significant source of training: Moderate-term on-the-job training

Electrical and electronic assemblers:
Perform electrical and electronic assembly work at a level less than that required of precision assemblers. Include electronic wirers, armature connectors, electric motor winders, skein winders, carbon brush assemblers, battery and battery parts assemblers, electric sign assemblers, and electrical and electronic subassemblers.

  • 1998 employment: 246,000
  • Projected 1998-2008 employment change: Slower than average
  • Most significant source of training: Short-term on-the-job training

Extruding and forming machine setters, operators, and tenders:
Operators and tenders: Operate or tend machines to shape and form any of a wide variety of manufactured products, such as glass bulbs, molded food and candy, rubber goods, clay products, wax products, tobacco plugs, cosmetics, or paper products, by means of extruding, compressing or compacting. Setters and setup operators: Set up or set up and operate machines, such as glass forming machines, plodder machines, and tuber machines, to manufacture any of a wide variety of products, such as soap bars, formed rubber, glassware, food, brick, and tile, by means of extruding, compressing, or compacting.

  • 1998 employment: 126,000
  • Projected 1998-2008 employment change: Slower than average
  • Most significant source of training: Moderate-term on-the-job training

Farm workers:
Food and fiber crops: Manually plant, cultivate, and harvest food and fiber products such as grains, vegetables, fruits, nuts, and field crops(e.g., cotton, mint, hops, and tobacco). Use hand tools such as shovels, trowels, hoes, tampers, pruning hooks, shears, and knives. Duties may include tilling soil and applying fertilizers; transplanting, weeding, thinning, or pruning crops; applying fungicides, herbicides, or pesticides; and packing and loading harvested products. May construct trellises, repair fences and farm buildings, or participate in irrigation activities. Include workers involved in expediting pollination and those who cut seed tuber crops into sections for planting. Farm and ranch animals: Attend to live farm or ranch animals that may include cattle, sheep, swine, goats, and poultry produced for animal products such as meat, fur, skins, feathers, milk, and eggs. Duties may include feeding, watering, herding, grazing, castrating, branding, debeaking, weighing, catching, and loading animals. May maintain records on animals; examine animals to detect diseases and injuries; assist in birth deliveries; and administer medications, vaccinations, or insecticides as appropriate. May clean and maintain animal housing areas. Include workers who tend dairy milking machines, shear wool from sheep, collect eggs in hatcheries, place shoes on animals’ hooves, and tend bee colonies.

  • 1998 employment: 851,000
  • Projected 1998-2008 employment change: A decline
  • Most significant source of training: Short-term on-the-job training

Foundry mold assembly and shakeout workers:
Prepare molds for pouring. Duties include: Cleaning and assembling foundry molds, and tending machine that bonds cope and drag together to form completed shell mold.

  • 1998 employment: 9,300
  • Projected 1998-2008 employment change: Little or no change
  • Most significant source of training: Moderate-term on-the-job training

Furnace, kiln, oven, drier, or kettle operators and tenders:
Operate or tend heating equipment other than basic metal or plastic processing equipment. Oven operators or tenders: Bake fiberglass or painted products, fuse glass or enamel to metal products, carbonize coal, or cure rubber or other products. Furnace operators or tenders: Anneal glass, roast sulfur, convert chemicals, or process petroleum. Kettle operators and tenders: Boil soap, or melt antimony or asphalt materials. Drier operators and tenders: Remove moisture from paper, chemicals, ore, clay products, or slurry. Kiln operators and tenders: Heat minerals, dry lumber, fire greenware, anneal glassware, or bake clay products.

  • 1998 employment: 25,000
  • Projected 1998-2008 employment change: A decline
  • Most significant source of training: Moderate-term on-the-job training

Furnace operators and tenders:
Operate or tend furnaces, such as gas, oil, coal, electric-arc or electric induction, open-hearth, or oxygen furnaces, to melt and refine metal before casting or to produce specified types of steel. Exclude heat-treating and related furnace operators.

  • 1998 employment: 23,000
  • Projected 1998-2008 employment change: A decline
  • Most significant source of training: Moderate-term on-the-job training

Gas and petroleum plant and systems occupations:
Gaugers: Gauge and test oil in storage tanks. Regulate flow of oil into pipelines at wells, tank farms, refineries, and marine and rail terminals, following prescribed standards and regulations. Petroleum refinery and control panel operators: Analyze specifications and control continuous operation of petroleum refining and processing units. Operate control panel to regulate temperature, pressure, rate of flow, and tank level in petroleum refining unit, according to process schedules. Gas plant operators: Distribute or process gas for utility companies and others. Distribute gas for an entire plant or process, often using panelboards, control boards, or semi-automatic equipment. Petroleum pump systems operators: Control or operate manifold and pumping systems to circulate liquids through a petroleum refinery. Exclude workers who do not operate entire manifold or pumping systems. Exclude oil pumpers who operate pipelines running outside of the refinery.

  • 1998 employment: 38,000
  • Projected 1998-2008 employment change: A decline
  • Most significant source of training: Long-term on-the-job training

Grinders and polishers, hand:
Grind and polish, using hand tools or hand-held power tools, a wide variety of metal, stone, clay, plastic, and glass objects or parts. Include grinders and chippers, polishers and buffers, metal sanders and finishers, glass grinders and polishers, and plastic buffers and finishers. Exclude precision-level workers.

  • 1998 employment: 81,000
  • Projected 1998-2008 employment change: Slower than average
  • Most significant source of training: Short-term on-the-job training

Laundry and drycleaning machine operators and tenders, except pressing:
Operate or tend washing or dry-cleaning machines to wash or dry-clean commercial, industrial, or household articles, such as cloth garments, suede, leather, furs, blankets, draperies, fine linens, rugs, and carpets.

  • 1998 employment: 167,000
  • Projected 1998-2008 employment change: About as fast as average
  • Most significant source of training: Moderate-term on-the-job training

Machine assemblers:
Perform assembly work at a level less than that required of precision assemblers. Include air-conditioning coil assemblers, ball bearing ring assemblers, fuel injection assemblers, and subassemblers.

  • 1998 employment: 67,000
  • Projected 1998-2008 employment change: Slower than average
  • Most significant source of training: Short-term on-the-job training

Motion picture projectionists:
Set up and operate motion picture projection and sound reproduction equipment.

  • 1998 employment: 9,300
  • Projected 1998-2008 employment change: A decline
  • Most significant source of training: Short-term on-the-job training

Packaging and filling machine operators and tenders:
Operate or tend machines, such as filling machines, casing-running machines, ham rolling machines, preservative filling machines, baling machines, wrapping machines, and stuffing machines, to prepare industrial or consumer products, such as gas cylinders, meat and other food products, tobacco, insulation, ammunition, stuffed toys, and athletic equipment for storage or shipment.

  • 1998 employment: 377,000
  • Projected 1998-2008 employment change: About as fast as average
  • Most significant source of training: Moderate-term on-the-job training

Painting, coating, and decorating workers, hand:
Paint, coat, and decorate, using handtools or hand-held power tools, a wide variety of manufactured items, such as furniture, glass and plateware, lamps, jewelry, books, or leather products. Include inlayers, stainers, enamelers, and decal appliers.

  • 1998 employment: 39,000
  • Projected 1998-2008 employment change: About as fast as average
  • Most significant source of training: Short-term on-the-job training

Paper goods machine setters and setup operators:
Set up or set up and operate paper goods machines that perform a variety of functions, such as converting, sawing, corrugating, banding, wrapping, boxing, stitching, forming, or sealing paper or paperboard sheets into products, such as toilet tissue, towels, napkins, bags, envelopes, tubing, cartons, wax rolls, and containers.

  • 1998 employment: 62,000
  • Projected 1998-2008 employment change: A decline
  • Most significant source of training: Moderate-term on-the-job training

Separating, filtering, clarifying, precipitating, and still machine operators and tenders:
Operate or tend machines such as filter presses, shaker screens, centrifuges, condenser tubes, precipitator tanks, fermenting tanks, evaporating tanks, scrubbing towers, and batch stills. These machines extract, sort, or separate liquids, gases, or solid materials from other materials in order to recover a refined product or material. Exclude workers who operate equipment to control chemical changes or reactions.

  • 1998 employment: 28,000
  • Projected 1998-2008 employment change: A decline
  • Most significant source of training: Moderate-term on-the-job training

Shipfitters:
Lay out and fabricate metal structural parts, such as plates, bulkheads, and frames. Brace them in position within hull of ship for riveting or welding. May prepare molds and templates for fabrication of nonstandard parts.

  • 1998 employment: 8,700
  • Projected 1998-2008 employment change: A decline
  • Most significant source of training: Long-term on-the-job training

Shoe sewing machine operators and tenders:
Operate or tend single, double, or multiple-needle stitching machines to join or decorate shoe parts, to reinforce shoe parts, or to attach buckles.

  • 1998 employment: 6,500
  • Projected 1998-2008 employment change: A decline
  • Most significant source of training: Moderate-term on-the-job training

Solderers and brazers:
Use hand soldering and brazing equipment to join together metal parts or components of metal products, or to fill holes, indentations, and seams of fabricated metal products.

  • 1998 employment: 35,000
  • Projected 1998-2008 employment change: About as fast as average
  • Most significant source of training: Short-term on-the-job training

Soldering and brazing machine operators and setters:
Operators and tenders: Operate or tend soldering and brazing machines that braze, solder, or spot weld fabricated metal products or components as specified by work orders, blueprints, and layout specifications. Setters and setup operators: Set up or set up and operate soldering or brazing machines to bronze, solder, heat treat, or spot weld fabricated metal products or components as specified by work orders, blueprints, and layout specifications.

  • 1998 employment: 12,000
  • Projected 1998-2008 employment change: Slower than average
  • Most significant source of training: Moderate-term on-the-job training

Supervisors, farming, forestry, and agricultural-related occupations:
Directly supervise and coordinate the activities of agricultural, forestry, fishing, and related workers. May supervise helpers assigned to these workers.

  • 1998 employment: 92,000
  • Projected 1998-2008 employment change: Slower than average
  • Most significant source of training: Work experience in a related occupation

Tire building machine operators:
Operate machines such as collapsible drum devices to build pneumatic tires from rubber components, such as beads, ply stock, tread, and sidewalls.

  • 1998 employment: 18,000
  • Projected 1998-2008 employment change: A decline
  • Most significant source of training: Moderate-term on-the-job training

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