Biological scientists held about 75,000 jobs in 2002. Almost half of all biological scientists were employed by Federal, State, and local governments. Federal biological scientists worked mainly for the U.S. Departments of Agriculture, Interior, and Defense, and for the National Institutes of Health. Most of the rest worked in scientific research and testing laboratories, the pharmaceutical and medicine manufacturing industry, or hospitals.
In addition, many biological scientists held biology faculty positions in colleges and universities. (See the statement on teachers—postsecondary
elsewhere in the Handbook.)