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Job Descriptions, Definitions Roles, Responsibility: Advertising, Marketing, Promotions, Public Relations, and Sales Managers
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The objective of any firm is to market and sell its products or
services profitably. In small firms, the owner or chief executive
officer might assume all advertising, promotions, marketing, sales, and
public relations responsibilities. In large firms, which may offer
numerous products and services nationally or even worldwide, an
executive vice president directs overall advertising, promotions,
marketing, sales, and public relations policies. (Executive vice
presidents are included in the Handbook statement on top executives.)
Advertising, marketing, promotions, public relations, and sales
managers coordinate the market research, marketing strategy, sales,
advertising, promotion, pricing, product development, and public
Managers oversee advertising and promotion staffs, which usually are small, except in the largest firms. In a small firm, managers may serve as a liaison between the firm and the advertising or promotion agency to which many advertising or promotional functions are contracted out. In larger firms, advertising
managers oversee in-house account, creative, and media services departments. The account executive manages the account services department, assesses the need for advertising, and, in advertising agencies, maintains the accounts of clients. The creative services department develops the subject matter and presentation of advertising. The creative director oversees the copy chief, art director, and associated staff. The media director oversees planning groups that select the communication media—for example, radio, television, newspapers, magazines, Internet, or outdoor signs—to disseminate the advertising.
Promotions managers supervise
staffs of promotion specialists. They direct promotion programs that
combine advertising with purchase incentives to increase sales. In an
effort to establish closer contact with purchasers—dealers,
distributors, or consumers—promotion programs may involve direct mail,
telemarketing, television or radio advertising, catalogs, exhibits,
inserts in newspapers, Internet advertisements or Web sites, instore
displays or product endorsements, and special events. Purchase
incentives may include discounts, samples, gifts, rebates, coupons,
sweepstakes, and contests.
Marketing managers develop the firm’s detailed marketing strategy. With the help of subordinates, including product development managers and market research managers, they determine the demand for products and services offered by the firm
and its competitors. In addition, they identify potential markets—for
example, business firms, wholesalers, retailers, government, or the
general public. Marketing managers develop pricing strategy with an eye
towards maximizing the firm’s share of the market and its profits while
ensuring that the firm’s customers are satisfied. In collaboration with
sales, product development, and other managers, they monitor trends
that indicate the need for new products and services and oversee
product development. Marketing managers work with advertising and
promotion managers to promote the firm’s products and services and to
attract potential users.
Public relations managers supervise public relations specialists. (See the Handbook statement on public relations specialists.)
These managers direct publicity programs to a targeted public. They
often specialize in a specific area, such as crisis management—or in a
specific industry, such as healthcare. They use every available
communication medium in their effort to maintain the support of the
specific group upon whom their organization’s success depends, such as
consumers, stockholders, or the general public. For example, public
relations managers may clarify or justify the firm’s point of view on
health or environmental issues to community or special interest groups.
Public relations managers also evaluate advertising and promotion
programs for compatibility with public relations efforts and serve as
the eyes and ears of top management. They observe social, economic, and
political trends that might ultimately affect the firm and make
recommendations to enhance the firm’s image based on those trends.
Public relations managers may confer with labor relations managers to
produce internal company communications—such as newsletters about
employee-management relations—and with financial managers to produce
company reports. They assist company executives in drafting speeches,
arranging interviews, and maintaining other forms of public contact;
oversee company archives; and respond to information requests. In
addition, some handle special events such as sponsorship of races,
parties introducing new products, or other activities the firm supports
in order to gain public attention through the press without advertising
Sales managers direct the firm’s sales program.
They assign sales territories, set goals, and establish training
programs for the sales representatives. (See the Handbook statement on sales representatives, wholesale and manufacturing.)
Managers advise the sales representatives on ways to improve their
sales performance. In large, multiproduct firms, they oversee regional
and local sales managers and their staffs. Sales managers maintain
contact with dealers and distributors. They analyze sales statistics
gathered by their staffs to determine sales potential and inventory
requirements and monitor the preferences of customers. Such information
is vital to develop products and maximize profits.